What is called the environment?
What is called the environment?
The word environment is taken from the French verb environner, which means
to “surround.” Thus, it can be called as the physical,
chemical and biological world that surrounds us, as well as the complex of social and
cultural conditions affecting an individual or community.
The biologist Jacob Van Uerkal (1864-1944) introduced the term ‘environment’ in Ecology. Ecology is the study of the relation between an organism of some kind and its environment.
As given by Environment Protection Act 1986,
Environment is the sum of land ,water, air and inter relationships with the humans beings and other living organisms. It is the science of physical phenomena.
It studies relation between all on the earth.
Environmental Science deals with the study of factors in soil like fossil fuel, water, air and organisms which lead pollution or environmental damages.
the scientific reason for the establishment of a standard is clean, safe and healthy for human beings and natural ecosystems.
Some important definitions of environment are given by
different scientist are as follows-
Boring: ‘A person’s environment consists of the sum total of the stimulation which he
receives from his conception until his death.’ It can be concluded from the above
definition that Environment comprises various types of forces such as physical,
intellectual, economic, political, cultural, social, moral and emotional. Environment is the
sum total of all the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life,
nature, behaviour and the growth, development and maturation of living organisms.
Douglas and Holland: ‘The term environment is used to describe, in the aggregate, all
the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behaviour and
the growth, development and maturity of living organisms.’
Environmental Science is an field that involves both the physical
sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, geography, resource technology and
engineering) and the social sciences (resource management and conservation,
demography, economics, politics and ethics).
Importance of its Study -
It is most important to study of environment because every thing on the earth is related to it.we can not live without it and can not survive.
Without study we can not find the problems and can not solve the problems.there are lot of problems around us daily. we are struggling daily from these problems.
Environmental studies have become important for the following reasons:
1. Environment issues being of international importance:
As we know today lot of issues related to international importannce.
Today we are facing many problems around us. For example the problem of safe water is the most critcle problem for world .
All countries are facing this problem . it is important how to solve it ?
Another problem of globle warming , all country facing the problem. There are many issues related to globle.
2. Problems found in the way of development:
Development, in its physical environment to growing cities, Industrial Growth, Transportation Systems, Agriculture and Housing etc. However, it has become passed away in the developed world. The
North, to clean their own environment has fact fully, managed to move ‘dirty’
factories of South . When the West developed, it did so ignorance of the
environmental impact of its activities. such a path is neither practicable
nor desirable, even if developing world follows that.
3. high increase in pollution:
World census reflects that one in every seven
persons in this planet lives in India. Evidently with 16 per cent of the world's
population and only 2.4 per cent of its land area, there is a heavy pressure on the
natural resources including land. Agricultural experts have recognized soil health
problems like deficiency of micronutrients and organic matter, soil salinity and
damage of soil structure.
4. Coronavirus pandemic
Corona virus problem is the one of the most important problem of human discussion. It rises in the disbalance of environment fact . it is a most common in the biotic factors of the environment.
Today all ecological community are busy in disbalanceing it . all the factors affects our physical environment.
Elements of Environment
Environment is made by the inter acting systems of physical, biological and
cultural elements related in various ways, individually as well as collectively. These
elements may be explained as under:
(1) Physical elements
Physical elements are as space, landforms, water bodies, climate soils, rocks and
minerals. They determine the variable character of the human habitat, its opportunities as
well as limitations.
(2) Biological elements
Biological elements such as plants, animals, micro organisms and humans
constitute the biosphere.
(3) Cultural elements
Cultural elements such as economic, social and political elements are essentially
man-made features, which make cultural milieu.
Structure of Environment
It is both physical and biological. It includes both living and nonliving components.
(i) Physical Environment
The Physical is classified into three broad categories viz.
(i) Solid, (ii) Liquid (iii) Gas.
These represent the following spheres:
(i) The lithosphere (solid earth) (ii) The hydrosphere (water component) (iii) The atmosphere (gaseous component)
As such, the three basic of physical environment may be termed as under: (i) Lithospheric Environment (ii) Hydrospheric (iii) Atmospheric
The scientists have classified them into smaller units based on different spatial scales, e.g.
(i) Mountain (ii) Glacier (iii) Plateau (iv) Coastal (ii) Biological
The biological consists of:
(i) Plants (flora) biotic factors(ii) Animals (fauna) Aboitic
Thus, the biotic environment further is divided into floral and faunal
. All the organisms work to form their social groups and organizations at
Thus, the social environment is formed. In this social environment the
organisms work to derive matter from the physical environment for their sustenance and
This process gives birth to economic environment. Man claims to be most
skilled and civilized of all the organisms. This is the reason why his social organization is